Geographical location

Topolog locality is located in the central part of Babadag Plateau, on the upper courses of the rivers Topolog and Valea Rostilor, Tulcea County. The distance Tulcea-Topolog is of 56 km. The road access on the North-South direction is done on DN22A.

Topolog commune comprises seven localities: Topolog – commune centre, Luminiţa, Sâmbăta Nouă, Măgurele, Cerbu, Făgăraşu Nou and Calfa.

From an archaeological perspective, the territory of Topolog commune is particularly important for understanding the ancient history of north – Dobrogea. All the localities of the commune entered into the scientific circuit, with discoveries that chronologically peg out a continuous human habitation, since the fifth millennium. Agriculture is the main economic activity of the commune, being supported by the two main branches: plant culture and livestock farming.

The area offers good conditions for the practice of agriculture, being crossed by small watercourses. The locality is an important viticultural and winemaking center.

Due to the steppe climate, here prevail rodents and birds: the ground squirrel, the mouse, the plain rat, the lesser mole rat, the steppe polecat, the hare, the quail, the partridge, the great bustard, the magpie, the starling and others. The forests in the area of the commune are home to: roe deer, foxes, squirrels, wild boars, hedgehogs, lizards.

The national road DN 22A connects the commune with the other localities in Tulcea County.

Luminita locality belongs to Topolog commune and is located at a distance of 4 km from it and 59 km from Tulcea Municipality.

Historically, Luminita village is first mentioned in The Ottoman Register, under the name of Rum– Begi.

The access by car in the locality is made from the national road DN22A, from Topolog commune, then through the county road DJ222B.

Sambata Noua locality belongs to Topolog commune, at a distance of 6 km from it and 62 km from Tulcea Municipality. It was founded around 1860, being mentioned in 1867 in the Ottoman Tapu, under the name of Dayran. The village is crossed by the creek Ramnicel (Hagi – Omer).

Access in the locality: by car from the national road DN22A, from Topolog commune, then through the county road DJ222B.

Magurele locality belongs to Topolog commune, at a distance of 6 km from it and 62 km from Tulcea Municipality. The old name of the village is Aygir – Ahmed, mentioned in the General Register of 1573.

Access in the locality: by car from the national road DN22A through the communal road DC37.

Cerbu locality belongs to Topolog commune, at a distance of 7 km from it and 63 km from Tulcea Municipality.  Initially, the village was inhabited only by Turkish ethnics, hence the old name of Hagi– Omer.

Access in the locality: by car from the national road DN22A, from Topolog commune, then through the county road DJ222B.

Fagarasu Nou locality belongs to Topolog commune, at a distance of 9 km from it and 65 km from Tulcea Municipality. It is historically mentioned for the first time in 1790, under the name of Alamar, in an Austrian military map.

Access in the locality: by car from the national road DN22A through the communal road DC36.

Calfa locality belongs to Topolog commune, at a distance of 9 km from it and 65 km from Tulcea Municipality. The first historical mention of the village, under the name of Ait– Calife, dates from 1573, in the General Register. In 1850, Ion lonescu from Brad mentions the village under the name of Kalfa. The church in the locality was built in 1890.

Access in the locality: by car from the national road DN22A through the communal road DC36.

Topolog history

In the beginning, the locality consisted of two settlements: Topal-ava and Topal-Ak, that is the Romanian Topolog and the Tatar Topolog, designations with which first appears in the ottoman General Register of 1573. Under the current name, Topolog, the settlement is recorded in the map of Zirbeck. In the Russian military map of 1928, the commune appears as Tunalo, because in 1850 the agronomist Ion lonescu from Brad mentioned here two neighboring localities: Topalong and Topolog, with the mention that the latter was already deserted because of the Russian-Turkish war of 1828- 1829. At present, the name of our locality remained Topolog.

Tulcea County occupies the northern half of the historical province Dobrogea, located in the southeastern extremity of Romania. Surrounded on three sides by water, it is bordered to the west by the counties Brăila and Galaţi, to the north by Ukraine through the natural border Danube, to the east by the Black Sea, having terrestrial border only to the south, with Constanţa County.

The relief of the county also includes the Horst of Dobrogea, remnant of the hercinic creases, which presents itself as a typical plateau, which determines the existence of three biogeographical zones: the steppe, the steppe forest and the forest. The archaeological discoveries on the territory of Tulcea County have put into light traces of habitation with an age of approx. 110,000 years. On the archaeological map of the county, the vestiges of the cultures Hamangia, Gumelniţa and Thracian-Dacian, of the Geto-Dacian fortresses and of the great Roman city buildings offer important documentary evidence of the material and spiritual life on these lands.

Tulcea, the administrative residence of this county, is also called the Gate of the Danube Delta. Here the Danube divides into three branches forming a magic land, the Delta. Tulcea is a port of a long history built on the ruins of the Roman fortress Aegisus. The edges of the city on the right bank of the Danube are like an amphitheater. The name of Tulcea is used since the seventeenth century. The parks and the rich flora give the city and its surroundings a pleasant appearance. The town is a developed industrial center, but the main role is owned by the Danube Delta and by the Delta Museum. The touristic routes go towards Macin, Garvan and Isaccea, the region being known for its picturesque landscapes. The most important routes are those in the delta, kingdom of waters and floating islands, a real paradise for fishermen and hunters, the paradise of birds and flora, forming a unique landscape. Under the motto “The Danube Delta for us and for posterity ” functions the Danube Delta Biosphere Reservation.

Touristic routes

  • Topolog commune – Ciucurovei, Ciolpanului Hills, Dealul Mare (398m alt), Ozangele (341m alt)/ Topolog River – The Hermitage “Holy Cross of Topolog” (F) in the area “Vraja Pădurii”;
  • Topolog Ciucurova village – Slavelor Plateau/ Ciucurova River (Slava Cercheza) – Ciucurovei (342m alt), Carierei Hills, Dealul Mare (398m alt) – The Monastery of the “Ascension of the Holy Cross – Cerbu” (M) 2000, accommodation + social settlement (house for children and old people);
  • Topolog Sambata Nouă village – Topologului Hills – Hills: Ciolpan (359m alt), Osambei (332m alt)/ Topolog River- Topolog (lake) – The Monastery of the “Holy Brâncoveni Martyrs – Sâmbăta Nouă” 2009.

Vezi Obiective

We owe the earliest mention to the consul Andrei Taranowski, who, in his diary of travel to Constantinople of 1570, wrote that: «From Chilia I sailed upwards on the Danube… and I reached a little town with the name of Tulcea ». In 1582 the English merchant John Newberie also gives us the information that he has reached a fair… which is called Tulcea.

In 1595, Tulcea is written down also in the map of Paulo Giorgici, and the great Turkish scholar and traveler Evlia Celebi (sec. XVII) is the one who speaks about Tulcea as being a town with 600 houses inhabited by Walachians. Starting with the eighteenth century Tulcea is more often mentioned in the cartographic documents and plans.

In the time of Mircea cel Batran, Tulcea, together with all of Dobrogea, was part of Wallachia. After the death of the ruler other Roman voivodes will also be interested in this region for its strategic role. Then, for almost five centuries, the town was under the occupation of the Turkish Empire. From this period it will be known under the name of Tulcea, name first met in 1595 on a map drawn by the Genovese Paolo Giorgici. On the significance of its name are held discussions even today.

The word Tulcea would be sourced after some hypotheses from tulpantile, brick and ceaearth that is the name given in those times after the occupations of the inhabitants who had invaded the hills with specially arranged places for making bricks necessary to the towns that were always destroyed. Nicolae Iorga believes that tul would actually be the name of a local bey to which was added the ending cea as well as in other cases: Casimcea, Hazamcea, etc. The Russian-Romanian-Turkish Independence War will bring the liberation of the town Tulcea from under the Turkish occupation. On November 14, 1878, Tulcea becomes the capital of the county with the same name, being the most important town of Dobrogea.

In time, especially in the period between the two world wars and currently, from 1970 until 2007, Tulcea municipality has experienced a continuous economic and social development, being the second most important town in Dobrogea.

Archaeological sites, the cultures Gumelnita and Hamangia, ancient vestiges – historical tourism

The archaeologists determined that on the current territory of Tulcea county were revealed traces of habitation dating back to more than 110,000 years standing out the vestiges of the cultures Hamangia, Gumelnita and Thracian-Dacian. Another point of attraction is represented by the Geto-Dacian fortresses and the great buildings consisting of Roman fortresses and fortifications. This timeline is respected at almost all the localities in Tulcea that have opened archaeological sites, most of the vestiges being found in the ruins of the fortresses, some of them being built even before the Roman period such as Argamum Fortress from Daeni which has existed for over 2,700 years and built by the Greeks that came from Asia Minor. Ruins of fortresses quite well preserved exist also at Slava Rusa on the valley of Slava creek namely  Ibida Fortress which it seems to have had huge dimensions occupying about 25 hectares, or at Daeni, location of the Fortress Proslavita built during the Byzantine Empire.

Locations of Tulcea holding the ruins of some ancient fortresses are: Dinogetia Fortress from Daeni, which became a military garrison during the Roman Empire sheltering the Roman legions, Noviodunum Fortress from Isaccea, built as a fluvial garrison, Heracleea Fortress from Sarichioi, built by Genovese and Byzantines, Halmyris Roman Fortress from Daeni (on the county road that goes to Dunavatul de Jos), Arrubium Fortress and Troesmis Fortress (mentioned in his writings by the poet Ovid) from Macin, which were initially built by the Dacians and then fortified by the Romans, both becoming Roman garrisons. Roman-Byzantine fortifications are also found at Ostrov and Babadag (the Roman settlement Vicus Novus). In the locations described were discovered traces of habitation corresponding to the Geto-Dacian, Thracian-Getic, Iron Age and Bronze Age periods until the primary Neolithic era or even of the prehistoric Paleolithic. Such traces were also found at Casimcea and Daeni. However, the tourists who want to visit Tulcea County will have the surprise to find many vestiges with the gates wide open, ready to receive their visitors.

Churches and monasteries, mosques – religious tourism

The tourism of the churches and monasteries is given by the presence of various religious buildings. We will meet such edifices at: Celic- Dele Monastery from Telita, Cocos Monastery at Daeni, Upsenia Monastery at Slava Rusa. Given the ethnographic peculiarities due to the fact that in Tulcea county coexist many ethnic groups, the religious buildings also keep the same aspects. Therefore besides the Romanian churches of different confessions, we will also meet Orthodox churches on old rite belonging to the cult of the Lippovan Russians, mosques representative of the cults of the Turkish-Tatar community (Gazi-Ali – Pasa Mosque from Babadag) and Greek Catholic churches of the Greek communities (for example at Izvoarele ). Noteworthy in this category is The Paleo-Christian complex from Daeni which comprises a Roman basilica and a necropolis which contains the tombs of four nominated martyrs.

Ethnography and folklore – rural tourism

Each entity that forms the population of a locality has preserved its traditions and customs. The folk Museum from Enisala is a sample of keeping the identity of an ethnic group which lives alongside the Romanians, as in the case of the Greek community from Izvoarele which is celebrating its traditions for centuries each year. Along with the mentioned reference points, the tourists of the lands of Tulcea have plenty of options: objectives such as lookout points with magnificent images, sometimes unique, that are met in the Arms Sulina and Chilia then the places where the Danube flows into the Black Sea as well as the littoral beaches which were formed in the localities Sulina and Sf.Gheorghe, Măcin port, the vineyards from Daeni and Babadag are other areas of interest.

Tourism in Măcin Mountains Natural Reservation – fauna and flora

To the tourists that like mountain hikings, we recommend them six touristic routes in the length of about 15 km, homologated by the founding organs to be able to travel through Măcin Mountains, in fact a natural reservation with protected areas, beneficiary of certain areas of maximum endurance, without touristic infrastructure. Camping is done in your own tents.  We remind you that Măcin Mountains, mountains eroded by precipitations and with lower heights, belong to Dobrogei Mountains, which in turn are part of the prehistorical chain of the Hercinian Mountains, the oldest in Europe, formed long before the Carpathians. The protected area has a unique flora and fauna. Elements of this fauna are already endangered: the stone marten, the blotched snake, the Balkan green lizard, the Balkan wall lizard, the spur-thighed tortoise, the nose horned viper, etc. The optimum point to access the homologated routes is Greci locality.

Car routes in Tulcea County

Those who are in the position of visitors of Tulcea County have at hand a lot of reference points which await their guests. There are various accommodation options ranging from hotels, guesthouses, lodges and campgrounds but also in inns or at the private individuals. The main car routes of Tulcea County: DN22, DN22A, DN22D, DN22E si DN22F.  The only railway network that serves the county is given by the line linking Tulcea Municipality with Constanta County. In support of the water and air transport, Tulcea County also has fluvial transport routes on the Danube as well as air routes served by Tulcea airport (small airplanes).